Varicose veins are a common disease characterized by an increase in the lumen of the blood vessels, a failure of the valve, and the occurrence of reverse blood flow. The pathological process can be localized in different places, so there are several types of disease:
- dilation of esophageal veins;
- rectal veins (hemorrhoids);
- veins in the small pelvis;
- varicose veins (varicocele);
- veins of the lower extremities.
Varicose veins of the legs are considered to be the most common. It is estimated that more than 30% of the population suffers from this, the majority of whom are women. Varicose veins on the legs are not only ugly protruding veins, but also a number of discomfort and discomfort. The pathological process is accompanied by severity, pain, edema and often leads to dangerous complications: thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, trophic ulcers. Many people want to know how to get rid of varicose veins forever, as it significantly impairs their quality of life. But unfortunately, this phenomenon is irreversible and can only be stopped or slowed down.
The causes of varicose veins are still unclear. It is clear that the disease is associated with thinning, weakness and loss of elasticity of the vessel wall, as well as valve incompetence. As a result, the veins dilate, elongate, long, twist, clump unevenly. Genetic predisposition is thought to play a crucial role in the development of the disease, i. e. from birth, weak blood vessels and defective valves.
There are several factors that contribute to the development of varicose veins, although these are not the reasons:
- Heredity (experts say the risk of the disease in people whose parents suffer is up to 70%).
- Belonging to the female gender. This is due to hormonal changes during puberty, pregnancy and menopause, as well as hormonal contraception and wearing high heels.
- Work related to staying on a long leg or sitting position (hairdressers, salespeople, surgeons, waiters, drivers, accountants, programmers and others).
- In old age, in which the weakening of the walls of blood vessels and the wear and tear of the keyboard are a natural phenomenon.
- Operational interventions.
- Sedentary lifestyle.
- Increased intra-abdominal pressure due to overweight, pregnancy, heavy lifting (loaders, weightlifters), frequent exertion, chronic constipation and cough.
Varicose veins are a chronic process that begins gradually and only progresses over time. To date, it is impossible to completely overcome the disease, but it is possible to slow down development and reduce symptoms if a complex treatment is used that includes:
- lifestyle change;
- physiotherapy exercises;
- compression therapy;
- medicines (for internal use and topical administration);
- surgical intervention;
- thermal processes;
- folk methods.
You have to fight varicose veins all your life. Self-medication should not be performed. Examination by a phlebologist or vascular surgeon is required to diagnose, determine the stage of the disease and the severity of the lesion, and prescribe appropriate treatment. The main task is to eliminate or reduce clinical manifestations, stop progression, and prevent relapses and complications.
The effectiveness of the treatment depends on the patient meeting all the doctor's recommendations. It is important to seek help at an early stage, when there is no pain yet, but there has been evening swelling, heaviness and fatigue in the legs, and small spider veins have appeared on the skin.
Without lifestyle changes, it is impossible to effectively treat varicose veins. The rules to be followed are completely banal, and non-compliance with them usually results in a lack of willpower or an irresponsible attitude towards health.
- Maintaining a normal body weight.
- Separation from bad habits: alcohol and smoking.
- Refusal to sunbathe, visit steam rooms and saunas, hot tub (including foot bath).
- Refusal of high heels (not higher than 4-5 cm).
- She is wearing a special stretch jersey.
- Providing physical activity. It can be walking, swimming, physiotherapy exercises, some sports. The most important things are squatting, weightlifting, long distance running, jumping, martial arts.
- Proper nutrition. The diet should include more fresh vegetables, fruits, herbs, whole grains, and seafood. It is recommended to reduce the amount of meat. Smoked, fried, salty, fatty foods should be given up. Among drinks, prefer green tea, clear water, fruit drinks, natural fresh juices and restrict coffee.
- Take every opportunity during the day to raise your legs at an angle of about 20 degrees.
- Buy a special pillow for your legs to keep your heart above sleep level.
- Try rinsing your feet with cold water as often as possible.
Special stretch jerseys are now available in a large selection. These are knee pants, stockings, tights of different colors and densities, which are practically no different from the usual ones. They have become a good alternative to elastic bandages, uncomfortable to use and aesthetically pleasing in appearance.
The special jersey does not treat varicose veins, but it improves microcirculation, reduces the strain on the veins, prevents stagnation of the blood, reduces the diameter of the blood vessels, increases the outflow of venous blood and lymph. The person feels light in his legs, he gets less tired in the evening, there is no swelling.
It will be difficult at first if you are not used to wearing compression stockings by hand. To make things easier, you can buy a special tool.
There are four classes of medical knitwear, depending on the pressure applied. You can only wear compression class 1 products that are considered prophylactic and are designed for healthy people. The rest should be prescribed by a doctor, depending on the diagnosis and severity of varicose veins. You should know that compression products are contraindicated for certain diseases. The tights or stockings are strictly selected by the doctor according to the size, otherwise there will be no desired effect.
For the treatment of varicose veins, tablets and topical agents are used in the form of gels, creams and ointments with different spectra. They increase the tone of blood vessels, improve microcirculation, promote blood flow and prevent skin lesions. The medications are designed to relieve fatigue, heaviness, discomfort, swelling, itching, cramps, and leg pain. They are strictly individually assigned.
The main tool for the treatment of varicose veins is venotonics. They are based on horse chestnut, routine, grape leaves and are almost always well tolerated by patients. It is available as tablets, capsules, gels.
A gel or cream should be applied daily to varicose feet and rubbed with light movements.
Anticoagulants are used to reduce blood viscosity and reduce the likelihood of thrombophlebitis. These are heparin-based ointments with cooling additives in the form of menthol, camphor and eucalyptus. In addition to diluting the blood, they prevent the development of thrombophlebitis.
Antihistamines may be prescribed for skin lesions that cause itching. In case of inflammation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory tablets are prescribed.
To get rid of the varicose veins, surgeries are performed to remove the affected part of the blood vessel to stop the discharge of blood from the superficial vein into the deep. The surgery is called phlebectomy. In its classic form, it is now being used less and less in connection with the emergence of new, less traumatic ways to treat varicose veins. Such treatment is usually recommended for large vein diameters and advanced cases of the disease.
A more gentle method is microflebectomy, in which a section of a vein is removed by incision rather than by incision.
Radiofrequency ablation is the safest and least traumatic method of treating varicose veins, although it has some contraindications. The method consists of the effect of microwave heat, which results in the closure of the venous lumen. Main benefits:
- outpatient treatment;
- no anesthesia and incision required;
- recovery does not take long;
- the process is easily tolerated;
- can also be done in the summer;
- there are no bruises after treatment, the swelling and pain are insignificant.
Radiofrequency ablation is a low-traumatic method of treating varicose veins.
Laser coagulation is another method of treating varicose veins. During the procedure, a laser is applied to the vessel wall. The radiation leads to adhesion of the walls of the vein and complete closure of the lumen. It is performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia without an incision. A catheter is inserted into the lumen of the vein, through which an LED is inserted and they receive radiation. The procedure is low traumatic and complications are very rare.
This non-surgical method is one of the most common. It is used in small veins and as part of a complex treatment, in conjunction with surgery. The point is to inject a special sclerosing drug into a vein using a thin needle. As a result, the walls of the blood vessel stick together, close and stop the blood flow. The affected vein transforms into a fibrous cord. The main advantages of the method:
- outpatient treatment;
- low invasiveness;
- simplicity of implementation;
- the duration of the procedure is about 20 minutes;
- good cosmetic effect.
If the disease starts, a complication such as deep vein thrombosis can develop.
Pour the chopped, unripe walnuts into a glass bowl and pour over the olive oil. Put it in the sun for 40 days. Apply as needed, lubricate the affected area. Continue treatment for about four months.
Beat off a cabbage leaf, apply a layer of olive oil to one side, apply this side to the diseased area, bind it and let it stand for a day. Continue treatment for a month.
This is one of the most effective folk remedies. To treat varicose veins, a tincture is made from the fruit of the plant, which must be crushed, filled in a half-glass jar (three liters) and filled with vodka. Remove for a month in a dark place, stirring occasionally. When done, rub over the sore spots overnight. Chestnut alcohol tincture for external and internal use in varicose veins can be purchased at the pharmacy.
Physiotherapy is an integral part of the complex treatment of varicose veins.
When varicose veins appear, the question may arise as to whether physical education and sports can be practiced and what exercises are useful. Most doctors agree that physical activity is very important in such a disease because dynamics are beneficial for the veins and static is detrimental. But it’s just as important to consult your doctor about what sports you can play and what loads will be optimal. In addition, the patient may be introduced to special therapeutic exercises that are performed directly in a health care facility. You can also perform simple but effective exercises at home that reduce the symptoms of varicose veins with regular exercise.
- Lie on your back, place pillows under your feet so that they rise at a 20-degree angle. Close your eyes, relax completely, take deep breaths.
- In the reclining position, lift your legs vertically and rotate your legs in and out alternately.
- Lie on your back and move your legs like cycling.
- Lie on your back, lift your legs and cross them (scissors).
- Stand up straight, lower your arms and legs together. Slowly ascend to your toes, then descend just as slowly.
- Walk in place, don’t tear your socks off the floor.
- Sitting in a chair, bend your ankles towards you and away from you, then bend your toes in the same way.
- Pour on the feet with a flexible jet of water (alternately cold and warm).
Varicose veins are an irreversible process, but they must be treated without failure, especially because quite a few modern methods must be combined. Without treatment, there is a high risk of complications such as chronic venous insufficiency, phlebitis, thrombophlebitis, thrombosis, trophic ulcers, and even dangerous conditions that can even cause death, such as pulmonary embolism.